Getting sick is part of being a kid. Their immune systems haven’t been exposed to as many germs as those of adults. So they get sick more often. There are some illnesses and infections that are very common in children. Most of them are relatively harmless and can be cared for at home.
It’s important to know what illnesses and infections are common during childhood and adolescence. This will help you identify an uncommon illness in your child more easily.
Path to improved health
All kids get sick from time to time. Most of the illnesses they pass around are very common. They are usually not a major cause for concern. These common illnesses and infections include:
- Symptoms: Sneezing, runny nose, congestion, cough, watery eyes.
- Cause: A virus that is easily spread among people, especially children.
- Treatment: Colds will run their course, and there’s not much you can do. You can give your child acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) to ease his or her symptoms. These medicines can help with headache, muscle aches, and fever. Never give aspirin to kids or teens. It has been linked to Reye syndrome, a rare but serious disease.
- Symptoms: Fever, chills, body aches, sore throat, loss of appetite, tiredness.
- Cause: A virus that can be spread easily, especially by coughing or sneezing into the air. The influenza vaccine (flu shot) can help protect you and your family from getting the flu.
- Treatment: Typical cases don’t require treatment. Symptoms can be managed at home with medicine, sleep, and plenty of fluids.
- Symptoms: Fever, stomach pain, red and swollen tonsils, throat pain.
- Cause: Bacteria that live in the nose and throat. They spread easily when coughing or sneezing.
- Treatment: A strep test will confirm strep in the doctor’s office. Then an antibiotic can be prescribed.
Gastroenteritis (“stomach flu”)
- Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
- Cause: A virus that spreads through houses and schools quickly.
- Treatment: It usually passes in a few days. Treatment at home should include plenty of rest and fluids.
- Symptoms: Flu-like symptoms, including fever, muscle aches, tiredness, and sore throat.
- Cause: The Epstein-Barr virus, which is spread by kissing, coughing, sneezing, or contact with saliva.
- Treatment: Home treatment should include plenty of rest. Medicine can be given to ease pain, fever, or aching muscles.
- Symptoms: Ear pain, fever, trouble swallowing or sleeping, tugging at ear in younger children.
- Cause: When a virus or bacteria gets into the space behind the eardrum. It causes pus to build up. The pressure on the eardrum causes pain.
- Treatment: Many doctors take a “wait and see” approach before recommending antibiotics. Antibiotics can’t help an ear infection caused by a virus. They often don’t help very much before the infection clears up on its own. Medicine can be given for pain at home.
- Symptoms: Eye redness, swelling, discharge, eye discomfort, itching.
- Cause: It can be caused by bacteria, a virus, allergies, or eye irritants such as chemicals. Those caused by bacteria or a virus are contagious.
- Treatment: It’s usually treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointment. Medicine can be given for discomfort. Warm or cool compresses can also help ease symptoms.
- Symptoms: Small bugs in the hair, eggs (nits) on hair shafts close to the scalp, itching head, small bumps or sores from scratching.
- Cause: Tiny parasites that feed of tiny amounts of blood from the scalp. They are highly contagious, but they are not dangerous.
- Treatment: Medicated treatments are available over the counter or by prescription. They include shampoo, cream rinse, or lotion. They kill the lice. Your doctor may recommend removing the nits after treatment using a fine-tooth comb.
Things to consider
For most of the illnesses listed here, home treatment or one trip to the doctor’s office is all you need. But sometimes our kids show signs that aren’t normal. If your child is showing any of these symptoms, call your doctor right away.
- not drinking enough fluids
- high fever, or fever with a rash
- rapid breathing or trouble breathing
- bluish skin color
- very sleepy or lethargic
- confused or disoriented
- flu symptoms that get better, but then get worse.
Questions to ask your doctor
- How do I know if my child needs antibiotics?
- Based on my child’s symptoms, should he or she be seen by the doctor?
- What kind of treatment is best for my child?
- What can I do at home to easy his or her symptoms?
- What should I watch for that could mean there are complications?
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.