Are high cholesterol levels only a problem for adults?
No. Many people don't realize that problems with high cholesterol levels can begin in childhood. High cholesterol levels are likely to continue to rise as a child grows into a teen and adult. This increases your child's risk for cholesterol-related health problems.
What are the risks of high cholesterol levels?
Your child's body needs some cholesterol to protect nerves, make cell tissues, and produce certain hormones. But too much cholesterol damages blood vessels. It builds up along blood vessel walls and forms sticky, fatty deposits called "plaque." Studies show that plaque can begin to form in childhood. It is more likely to form when a child's cholesterol levels are high.
High cholesterol levels increase your child's risk of heart disease and stroke when he or she gets older. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The risk is higher in people who have a family history of heart disease, have diabetes, are overweight or obese, have unhealthy eating habits, are not physically active, or smoke.
Where does cholesterol come from?
The liver makes all the cholesterol your child's body needs. He or she also gets cholesterol from food, including animal products such as eggs, meats, and dairy products.
What is the difference between "good" cholesterol and "bad" cholesterol?
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are often called "bad" cholesterol. They deliver cholesterol to the body. Some people's bodies make too much LDL cholesterol. LDL levels also are increased by eating foods high in saturated fat, trans fats, and dietary cholesterol.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are often called "good" cholesterol. They remove cholesterol from the blood. A healthy level of HDL may help protect against heart disease. Exercise can increase the amount of HDL cholesterol the body produces. Avoiding trans fats and following a healthy diet also can increase HDL levels.
If a person's total cholesterol level is high because of a high LDL ("bad" cholesterol) level, the risk for heart disease or stroke is higher. But if a person's total cholesterol level is high because of a high HDL ("good" cholesterol) level, the risk probably is not increased.
Should my child be tested for high cholesterol levels?
Most children do not need to be tested for high cholesterol unless there is a family history of high cholesterol or the child or teen has diabetes.
What causes high cholesterol levels in children?
The following are factors that can cause high cholesterol levels in children:
- Family history of high cholesterol levels (for example, a parent who has high cholesterol levels)
- Lack of physical activity
What can I do to help prevent my child from having high cholesterol levels?
Help your child maintain a healthy weight by teaching him or her to make healthy food choices and be physically active.
Here are a few tips:
- Offer your child at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. For example, have healthy snacks such as apples, bananas, carrots, and celery readily available.
- Include plenty of low-fat proteins, vegetables, and whole grains in the meals you make.
- Avoid saturated fat and trans fats. Saturated fats are usually found in animal products (for example, meat and eggs) and dairy products (for example, cheese and butter). Many snack foods (for example, cookies and chips) are high in saturated fat. Trans fats are usually found in processed foods (for example, doughnuts and crackers) and fried foods (for example, French fries and onion rings).
- Avoid fast-food dining. If you do eat at a fast-food or sit-down restaurant, choose the healthiest options available.
- Limit your child's time using a TV, computer, cell phone, or game station to no more than 1 to 2 hours a day. Set a good example by limiting your own screen time, too.
- Encourage your child to find physical activities he or she enjoys and get active. Aim for at least 1 hour of active play every day.
- Make physical activity part of your whole family's lifestyle. Take a walk, go for a bike ride, or do chores together. Plan active family outings.
More information about making healthy food choices is available in Nutrition: Healthy Eating for Kids.
Will my child need medicine to lower his or her cholesterol levels?
In almost all cases, healthy eating and physical activity are the first choice to lower a child or teen's high cholesterol levels. If healthier eating and exercise habits don't help, your family doctor may consider prescribing a cholesterol-lowering medicine. This type of medicine may be needed if your child has diabetes or is overweight or obese.
Not all medicines are safe for use in children. Do not give your child a cholesterol-lowering medicine that isn't specifically prescribed to him or her.
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.