What are herbal health products and supplements?
A botanical is a plant or part of a plant that people use to try to stay healthy, or to treat health conditions and illnesses. An herbal health product or supplement (also called a botanical product) is a type of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.
Herbal health products and supplements are available in many forms, including in tea bags, capsules, tablets, liquids, and powders. Examples of common herbal health products and supplements include black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.
Are herbal health products and supplements safe?
Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as "natural," their ingredients aren't necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your body. They can also cause unpleasant health effects (also called adverse effects). Researchers have studied the benefits and risks of some herbal health products and supplements, but others need to be studied more.
Are herbal health products and supplements regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?
All of the OTC and prescription medicines you can buy have to be "approved" as safe and effective by the FDA. But the FDA defines dietary supplements as a category of food, not as drugs. For this reason, the FDA doesn't require proof of their safety and effectiveness to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure health conditions. Instead, it's up to the manufacturer to be sure that an herbal health product or supplement is safe before it is sold.
The FDA can take herbal health products or supplements off the market if they are found to be unsafe (for example, if they cause serious adverse effects) or are found to contain ingredients that aren't listed on the label (for example, harmful substances).
Is it safe to take herbal health products and supplements if I have health problems?
Herbal health products and supplements may not be safe if you have certain health problems, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Children and older adults also may be at increased risk of adverse effects from these products because their bodies process the ingredients differently.
If you are going to have surgery, tell your doctor about any herbal health products and supplements you use. These products can cause problems with surgery, including bleeding problems with anesthesia. You should stop using herbal health products or supplements at least two weeks before surgery, or sooner if your doctor recommends it.
Whether you have a health problem or not, it is always best to talk to your family doctor before taking any herbal health product or supplement.
Can herbal health products or supplements change the way OTC or prescription medicines work?
Yes. Herbal health products or supplements can affect the way the body processes drugs. When this happens, your medicine may not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by the body. When this happens, the drugs may not be absorbed at high enough levels to help the health conditions for which they are prescribed. This can cause serious problems.
If you take any OTC or prescription medicines, talk to your doctor before taking any type of herbal health product or supplement.
How can I find out what is in herbal health products and supplements?
By law, manufacturers of herbal health products and supplements are responsible for making sure their labels are accurate and truthful. The FDA requires the following information on labels:
- Name of the product or supplement
- Name of the address of the manufacturer or distributor
- Complete list of ingredients
- Amount of product or supplement in the container or package
Avoid any herbal health product or supplement that does not list this information.
The National Institutes of Health maintains the Dietary Supplement Label Database. It is an online database that gives label information for thousands of dietary supplements. You can look up supplements by brand name, active ingredient, or manufacturer.
How can I use herbal health products or supplements safely?
Don't take any herbal health products or supplements without talking to your family doctor first. If you do use an herbal health product or supplement, read the directions on the label to learn how much to take and how often to take it. You should never take more than the recommended amount. If you have any questions about how much to take, ask your doctor.
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements are good sources of information about herbal health products and supplements.
How can I safely store herbal health products and supplements?
Store all herbal health products and supplements up and away, out of reach and sight of young children. Do no store them in a place that is hot and humid (for example, a bathroom or bathroom cabinet). Keeping these products in a cool, dry place will help keep them from becoming less effective before their expiration date.
- National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements . Botanical Dietary Supplements. Accessed August 11, 2015
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplements. Accessed August 11, 2015
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. Accessed August 11, 2015
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide: Chapter III. Net Quantity of Contents. Accessed August 11, 2015
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Questions and Answers on Dietary Supplements. Accessed August 11, 2015
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.