International travel is fun and exciting. However, every traveler should be aware of certain things that can ruin their trip. From vaccinations to poor water quality, there are a number of things to consider.
Path to improved health
Before you travel, plan ahead:
- See your doctor at least 6 weeks before you leave. You may need immunizations or vaccinations for the areas you are visiting. Some vaccines don’t reach the highest protection until about 6 weeks after you get the shots.
- Have medical and dental check-ups before your trip. Be aware of health problems you may have. Find out about medicines you might need to take with you.
- Find out what your health insurance will pay for if you see a doctor while you’re in another country. Carry enough of your regular medicines in their original containers. Carry extra prescriptions for the medicines, as well. Bring your eyewear prescriptions. Wear a medical information bracelet, if needed.
- Take a first-aid kit. Not all items listed below are necessary. You can customize your kit based on what you might need. It may include:
- Your prescription medicines, in their original containers.
- Medicine for diarrhea and upset stomach.
- Prescription antibiotic you can take in case you get traveler’s diarrhea.
- An over-the-counter medicine for upset stomach.
- Antacid for indigestion.
- Cough and cold medicines.
- Pain medicines (aspirin, acetaminophen, naproxen, or ibuprofen).
- Decongestants and antihistamines for allergies (non-drowsy formula).
- Antibiotic ointment.
- Adhesive bandages.
- Hydrocortisone cream.
- Moleskin for blisters.
- Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 and lip balm.
- Medicine for motion sickness (dimenhydrinate).
- Other medicines for nausea and altitude sickness (promethazine and acetazolamide).
- Scissors, tweezers, nail clippers, pocket knife, thermometer, and a mirror.
- Hand wipes and hand sanitizer.
- Consider what you’ll eat while traveling. If you’re going to a country with an increased risk of traveler’s diarrhea, plan to eat carefully. Hot, well-cooked food is usually safest. Avoid eating foods from street vendors, unpasteurized dairy products, and raw or uncooked seafood. Peel fruits yourself. Drink water from commercially sealed bottles. Or drink hot or carbonated beverages. Avoid ice. Use bottled water when you brush your teeth.
Things to consider
When you visit your doctor, he or she will decide whether or not you need any vaccines or other medicines. The vaccines you got when you were a child also may need to be updated if you’re not fully protected. Vaccines you may need include the following:
- Hepatitis A or hepatitis A immune globulin
- Hepatitis B
- Influenza (the flu)
- Japanese encephalitis
- Meningococcal meningitis
- Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids
- Typhoid fever
- Varicella (chickenpox)
- Yellow fever
Sometimes, the amount of a certain vaccine cannot keep up with the number of people who need it.
While you’re traveling:
- If you’re going to a country with an increased risk of mosquito-borne disease, protect yourself against insects. Insect repellents that contain DEET work the best. Wear permethrin-coated clothing and use bed nets while you sleep.
- If you’re going to a country with a risk of malaria, your doctor may prescribe preventive medicine for malaria. Start taking your malaria medicine before you leave on your trip. Take it during your travels and keep taking it for 4 weeks after you get home.
- Avoid swimming and other water activities in freshwater lakes and streams. Schistosomiasis (also called bilharziasis) is a disease you might be exposed to in some African streams and lakes.
- Try to avoid taking overcrowded transportation. Try not to ride in vehicles without safety belts. Wear a helmet if you’ll be riding a motorcycle. Try to avoid driving at night or in unfamiliar areas without local help and directions.
One of the most common issues you may encounter when traveling internationally is traveler’s diarrhea. You can get this by eating food or drinking water that contain germs. People get this illness in areas of the world where the drinking water isn’t clean.
Symptoms of traveler’s diarrhea include:
- Stomach cramps
- Bloody stools
If not treated, traveler’s diarrhea usually goes away in 4 to 5 days. However, there are some things you can do to feel better. Drink plenty of clear liquids. Take medicine, such as loperamide (brand name: Imodium). In some cases, you may need antibiotics (medicines that kill bacteria). Your doctor may prescribe these before you leave for your trip.
See a doctor right away if you have a fever higher than 102°F, are dehydrated, have blood in your stool or vomit several times. If treating your symptoms isn’t helping you feel better, talk with your doctor.
Questions to ask your doctor
- What vaccines should I get before I travel?
- What should I do if my trip is last minute and I don’t have time to get vaccinations?
- I have type 2 diabetes. What advice can you give me about eating abroad?
- If I get traveler’s diarrhea, who should I contact and when?
- Are children at an increased risk of illness when traveling to other countries?
- Is air pollution a problem in some countries, and can that impact my asthma?
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.