Occupational Exposure to Lead
How might I be exposed to lead?
Lead can get into your body in two ways: inhalation (breathing it in) and ingestion (eating it). You might breathe in lead dust or lead fumes without even knowing it. You can swallow lead dust if it gets in your food or drink. You might even swallow lead dust if you eat without washing your hands first.
What problems does lead cause?
Once lead gets into your body, it stays there for a long time. It builds up over time even if you're exposed to only small amounts of it. As lead builds up in your body, it can damage your brain, kidneys, nerves and blood cells. This is called lead poisoning.
As a general rule, the more lead you have in your body, the more likely it is that you'll have health problems. Your chance of having health problems goes up the longer you have a high level of lead in your body. We don't know just how much lead causes health problems because the effects of lead are different for everyone.
What are the signs of lead poisoning?
These are some of the early signs of lead poisoning:
- Muscle and joint pain
- Stomachaches and cramps
What is my employer's responsibility for lead in the workplace?
The Lead Standard is a federal and state regulation (law) that requires employers to follow guidelines to protect workers from harmful lead exposure. An important part of this standard says that lead in the air of a workplace shouldn't be more than 50 µg (micrograms) per meter, averaged over 8 hours. Under the Lead Standard, workers have the right to the following:
- To receive a copy of the Standard.
- To receive a copy of air monitoring results.
- To receive medical evaluation and monitoring if they are exposed to airborne lead levels above 30 µg per meter for more than 30 days a year. If this occurs, the employer must provide workers with a medical surveillance program. This program would include blood testing, a lead-specific medical exam, treatment (if needed), removal from further exposure to lead if health is at risk and medical clearance for use of a respirator. In some circumstances, workers can be transferred to jobs that don't expose them to lead without loss of pay or benefits.
Who can help me understand my blood lead test?
Your doctor and your company safety officer can help if you're worried about lead exposure. Your doctor can test your blood for lead.
Your doctor can also help you understand your lead level and the effects it might have on your health. It's important for your doctor to know that you are exposed to lead at work even if you don't notice any health problems.
How can I protect myself from lead exposure?
The company safety officer can help you find out whether your work area has been checked for high levels of lead in the air. He or she can also help you avoid exposure by giving you protective equipment.
You can protect yourself and your family with these basic safe work practices:
- Wear separate work clothes and shoes or boots while at work.
- Don't wear your work clothes and shoes or boots home from work, and don't wear them when you aren't at work.
- Wash and dry your work clothes separately. Don't mix your work clothes with clothes from other people in your family when the laundry is done.
- Wash your hands and face before you eat, drink or smoke.
- At work, eat, drink or smoke only in areas that are free of lead dust and fumes.
- Avoid stirring up lead-containing dust with dry sweeping; wet cleaning is safer.
- If you wear a respirator at work, make sure it fits well.
What about lead in my home?
Lead is present in lead-based paint and in lead-contaminated soil and water. The older the home, the greater the chance lead-based paint was used. Lead from paint can enter your body through dust or paint chips. The soil around your home can pick up lead from sources such as exterior paint. Lead can enter your drinking water through your plumbing. If you think the plumbing in your house may contain lead, use only cold water for drinking and cooking and run water for 30 seconds before using it. You may also need to replace the pipes that supply water to the faucets in your home.
You can check your home for lead by having a professional inspect your paint or assess any possible sources of lead.
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.