Medicines can help you feel better. But if medicines are taken incorrectly, they can actually make you feel worse or do harm. To use prescription medicines and medicines you can buy over the counter (without a prescription) correctly, follow the guidelines below.
Path to improved health
How can I remind myself to take my medicine?
Make your medicine part of your daily routine. Take it at the same time (or times) every day. This could be when you wake up, before you go to bed, or when you eat certain meals. Keep the medicine bottle(s) in a place you see often, such as on the kitchen counter. (Make sure that medicines are in childproof containers. Keep them out of the reach of children.)
You can download an app or set a reminder on your phone to help you remember. If you take many medications, consider using a pill sorter. Ask your pharmacy if they have pill-packs or other pill containers that sort medicines by time or day.
Should I avoid any foods, drinks, or activities while I’m taking medicine?
Talk to your doctor about things to avoid while you are taking a prescription medicine. Some foods can cause side effects (such as an upset stomach) if you are taking medicine. Drinking alcohol is generally not a good idea while you are taking medicine. Some medicines cause reactions, such as sun sensitivity. This can increase your risk of sunburn or sun rash. You may need to limit outdoor activities or take extra steps to protect your skin from the sun.
If you are taking an over-the-counter medicine, read the label carefully. It should tell you what to avoid while you are taking the medicine. Follow the instructions just as you would with a prescription medicine. If you have questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
What’s the difference between generic and brand name medicines?
Just like foods, some medicines come in both brand names and generics. Generic medicines generally cost less. They usually work the same as brand name medicines. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if a generic form of your prescription medicine will work for you.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines also come in generics. Compare the lists of ingredients. If the generic has the same ingredients as the brand name, you may want to consider using it. But be careful: The generic may contain different amounts of certain ingredients. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about which medicine to choose.
What if I don’t feel better even though I’m taking my medicine?
Any medicine needs time to work. When you are given a prescription, ask your doctor how long it should take for the medicine to make you feel better. It might take time to find the best medicine for you and the right amount of it. Call your doctor if you have concerns about what you’re taking. Also call your doctor if you don’t feel better after taking your medicine as prescribed.
If you’re trying to treat yourself with an over-the-counter medicine and it doesn’t seem to be working, call your doctor. Your symptoms can get much worse if you wait too long to get treated by your doctor.
What should I know about each medicine I take?
It’s important to know as much as you can about a medicine before you take it. Be sure to note the following about each medicine you take:
- Name (generic name and brand name).
- Reason for taking it.
- How much to take and how often to take it.
- Possible side effects and what to do if you have them.
- How long to continue taking it.
- Special instructions (taking it at bedtime, with meals, on an empty stomach, etc.).
Things to consider
Medicine dos and don’ts
Follow these tips for using medicines safely.
- Do read the label carefully.
- Do take your medicine exactly as your doctor tells you to.
- Do make sure that each of your doctors (if you see more than one) has a list of all of the medicines you’re taking.
- Do ask your doctor to help you make a schedule (if you are taking more than one medicine). This will help you remember what medicines to take at what times of the day.
- Do consider using one pharmacy for all your prescriptions. The pharmacist can help you keep track of what you’re taking. He or she can also look out for drug interactions.
- Do make sure everyone you live with knows what medicine you’re taking and when you’re supposed to take it.
- Don’t combine prescription medicines and over-the-counter medicines for the same condition unless your doctor says it’s okay.
- Don’t stop taking a medicine, change how much you take, or change how often you take it without talking to your doctor first.
- Don’t take someone else’s medicine.
- Don’t use medicine after its expiration date.
- Don’t crush, break, or chew tablets or capsules unless your doctor tells you it’s okay. Some medicines won’t work correctly unless they are swallowed whole.
Tips for choosing OTC medicines
- If you have questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
- Although it can seem overwhelming, take the time to look at all the choices.
- Read the label carefully. Note what symptoms the medicine will treat.
- Look for a medicine that will treat only the symptoms you have. For example, if you have only a runny nose, don’t pick a medicine that also treats coughs and headaches.
- Note how much medicine you should take and what side effects it may cause.
- Note what medicines or foods you should not take with the medicine.
- Check to see if the medicine causes problems for people with certain health problems (such as asthma or high blood pressure).
Questions to ask your doctor
If there is something you don’t understand about a medicine you’re taking, ask your doctor. If you still don’t understand, ask your doctor to explain things more clearly, or in a different way. If you are taking more than one medicine, be sure to ask how the medicines will work together in your body. Sometimes medicines cause problems when they are taken together (called a drug interaction).
Below is a list of questions you can ask your doctor to learn how to use each medicine correctly and safely:
- What does the medicine do?
- When and how should I take the medicine?
- What side effects (reactions your body may have to the medicine) could I have?
- Will the medicine react to any other medicines, foods or drinks?
- Should I avoid any activities while I’m taking the medicine?
- What should I do if I forget to take the medicine?
- How will I know whether the medicine is working?
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.